Item Writing

The Item Writing workshop is one of the several initiates implemented by the Vocational Training Devolvement Institute and managed by the Assessment    Department to enhance the development of facilitators’ competence in identifying and designing the most appropriate assessment instrument to assess students’ performance.


Background to the proposal


The future of so many of our learner depends on the outcomes of assessment, it is impossible to overemphasize its importance.   Assessment is a central element in the overall quality of teaching and learning in higher level competence. Well designed assessment sets clear expectations, establishes a reasonable workload and provides


The training in ‘Item Writing’   is designed to expose Teachers/ Instructors/ Facilitators to assessment strategies that are valid, reliable and effective in higher education. It introduces selected assessment strategies, appropriate for the intended outcomes and brings together information on choosing the strategies which will guide learners’ approach to study and provide them with feedback on their progress.


 The training will engage the facilitators in series of activities to support their professional development by providing hands on experiences in designing and evaluating assessment instruments appropriate for specific task. Special emphasis will be placed on the development and analysis of authentic assessment.


 Workshop Objectives                     

As a result of participating in this workshop, participants should be better able to:


  • Identify the qualities of a good assessment instrument
  • Identify and select the most appropriate assessment strategies for formative/summative assessment (Assessment for learning and assessment of learning).
  • Developing selected response  assessment items
  • Developing constructed response  assessment items
    • Design performance assessment instrument for higher level task/competencies.
    • Demonstrate the use of a portfolio in collecting, exhibiting and evaluating student work.
    • Develop case studies for assessment of higher level competencies.
  • Construct relevant scoring rubrics for assessing competencies at the cognitive and psychomotor domain.


Workshop Elements

Qualities of a good assessment instrument

Assessment for learning & Assessment of learning  

  • Guide lines for Developing Assessment Instruments

o   Selected Response Items

  • Multiple Choice items
  • Matching Items
  • Modified True false items

o   Constructed Response items.

  • Performance assessment
  • Project-based assessment
  • Case studies
  • Portfolio development

Scoring Rubrics

o    Rating scales , checklist

o   Analytical& holistic scoring rubrics